“More than 80% of the variation in GDP per capita across countries is due to microeconomic variables. It is rooted in the sophistication of firms’ work practices and strategies, as well as the quality of the microeconomic business environment in which a country’s firms compete.” – Michael Porter

“Many countries can improve their prosperity if they can improve their productivity. There are unlimited human needs that can be met if productivity lowers the cost of products and productive labor absorbs better pay.” – Michael Porter

Productivity is considered a key source for economic growth and competitiveness and, as such, is basic statistical information for the evaluation of countries’ performance. There are different ways to measure productivity and the choice depends on the purpose and/or availability of data.

La Productividad desde REGENERING: Valor económico creado en una unidad de tiempo de trabajo.

Productividad: salida de un proceso por unidad de entrada, en un tiempo especifico.

Productividad Laboral = producción por hora trabajada.

Productividad Total de los Factores = producción por unidad de insumos combinados:

  • Capital
  • Trabajo
  • Energía
  • Materiales
  • Servicios Empresariales
  • Innovación técnica y organizativa

Nota1: la producción se puede contabilizar de diferentes maneras: unidades producidas, importe facturado, etc.

Nota2: es importante diferenciar entre las Horas Trabajadas y las Horas Pagadas.

What affects labor productivity?

Excluding variation in hours worked, output per labor hour can increase due to:

  • Technological advances
  • Improved worker skills
  • Improved management practices
  • Economies of scale in production
  • Increases in the amount of non-labor inputs used

How are Hours Worked calculated?

They include:

  • The hours worked, normal and overtime.
  • The duration, in the workplace, of downtime due to occasional absence from work.
  • The time corresponding to short rest periods at the workplace.


  • Hours paid but not worked such as vacation, holidays, or sick leave.
  • Meal breaks.